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Piping Basics2

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NPS is also known as NB for interchangeability with other standards which is called as nominal bore (or) nominal Diameter



Pipefitting is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas, and occasionally solid materials. This work involves selecting and preparing pipe or tubing, joining it together by various means, and the location and repair of leaks.

Valves are installed on equipment/piping to perform any one of the functions. Isolation, Regulation, Non-return and Special purpose

Isolation   - Gate valves, Ball valves, Plug valves, Piston valves, Diaphragm valves, Butterfly valves, Pinch valves.

Regulation - Globe valves, Needle valves, Butterfly valves,

Diaphragm valves, Piston valves, Pinch valves.

Non-Return   - Check valves

Special Purpose – Multi-purpose valves, Flush bottom valves,

Float valves, Foot valves, and Line blind valves.      

Strainers, Steam Traps Flame Arrestor, Expansion Joints, Spectacle Blind, Hoses




It is an assembly of piping components which is used to convey, distribute, mix, separate; discharge (or) control fluid flows.



Nominal in piping terminology identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number (for example – "2-inch nominal steel pipe" There may be many varieties of steel pipe available in market, but all the pipe have 2.375 inch as outside diameter).


So the 3D models become a major communications tool. For the design of steam field facilities 3D models are being used for:           Concept design and layout, Detailed designConstructability reviews, Access and operability reviews, Safety in design reviewsAs a visual aide during Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPs) Clients are now recognizing the value in 3D visualization and are prepared to invest in it to get full models of their sites.

Equipments are devices that provide power, process and store materials. Equipments in piping systems depend on the specific industries using them. Specialized equipment can be found in petroleum, petrochemical, pulp and paper, food processing, brewing and power plants. It is important that new versions of equipment are used in designs and vendor’s equipment drawing for location and orientation of nuzzles and connections for instrumentations and utilities must be consulted. Common equipments include pumps, tanks, vessels, heat exchangers, etc. Many of the following equipments will be found in some plants of different industry types.

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