Actually Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures.
Piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluid from one location to other.
ASME B31.1 Power piping
ASME B31.3 Process piping
ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
ASME B31.5 Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components.
ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems
ASME B31.9 Building services piping
ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems (Withdrawn,Superseded by B31.4)
ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
Standards for Pipes:
ANSI B36.10 - Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes
ANSI B36.19 - Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipes
ANSI B16.1 - Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings
ANSI B16.3 - Malleable iron threaded fittings
ANSI B16.34 - Steel valves, Flanged and butt welding ends
ANSI B16.5 - Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
ANSI B16.9 - Steel butt welding fittings
ANSI B16.10 - Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves
ANSI B16.11 - Forged steel socket welding and threaded fittings
ANSI B16.21 - Non-metallic gasket for pipe flanges
ANSI B16.25 - Butt welding ends
ANSI B16.28 - Short radius elbows and returns.
It is a long pressure tight cylinder to convey fluids (or) to transmit a fluid at pressure.
Piping Manufacturing Methods:
Seamless, Electric Resistance welding (ERW)
Electric Fusion Welding (EFW), Spiral and submerged arc
Welding, Furnace butt welding, double submerged arc
Welding and Forged and bored
Electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe is manufactured by cold-forming a sheet of steel into a cylindrical shape. Current is then passed between the two edges of the steel to heat the steel to a point at which the edges are forced together to form a bond without theuse of welding filler material. Initially this manufacturing process used low frequency A.C. current to heat the edges. This low frequency process was used from the 1920’s until 1970. In 1970, the low frequency process was superseded by a high frequency ERW process which produced a higher quality weld.Over time, the welds of low frequency was found to be susceptible to selective seam corrosion, hook cracks, and inadequate bonding of the seams, so low frequency ERW is no longer used to manufacture pipe. The high frequency process is still being used to manufacture pipe for use in new pipeline construction.
What is 3D modeling: The Process of Developing Mathematical representation of three